· Atomic OntoGov service: An atomic service is a service that cannot be decomposed into simpler services. It is directly invocable and is executed in single step.
- Example: Issue of a birth certificate.
· Component repository: The repository of software components (e.g javabeans, EJBs) which are developed in a programming language (e.g. java, C++, etc). These components must be associated with OntoGov services during the configuration and reconfiguration.
· Composite OntoGov service: It is composed of one or more atomic or composite OntoGov services, provided by one or more public organisations.
- Example: a composite OntoGov service named “Issue civil marriage licence” consists of atomic OntoGov services such as:
- Issue of a birth certificate: it takes place at a register office of a municipality.
- Issue of certificate of residence: It takes place at a public authority other than the municipality.
· Composition is the task of combining and linking existing Web Services and other components to create new processes.
· Concept: A concept defines a group of individuals that belong together because they share some properties.
· DAML: DARPA Agent Markup Language.
· DAML-S: Upper ontology of web services – defines ontologies for the construction of service models: Service Profiles, Process Models and Service Grounding.
· Domain expert: Possesses the necessary background knowledge on the e-government domain for the design and the configuration of a public service. This knowledge includes the legislation that a service is based on, the respective law, related directives, prerequisites etc.
· End-user: A citizen, a business or another public organisation, requesting a web service configured and published by using the OntoGov platform.
· IT consultant: IT consultant is responsible for the (re)configuration of the various the OntoGov services. IT consultants extend the process model created by Domain experts by attaching a reference to the software components implementing activities in a process and by defining meta-information about each activity such as date, authors, etc. A domain expert is responsible only for a process model, whereas an IT consultamt is responsible for the whole model. IT consultant will make use of the main components of the OntoGov platform:
- The ontology editor.
- The ontology management system.
- The service configuration system.
· Manager: Makes decisions for the configuration of new services or the re-configuration of existing ones. In order to accomplish this task, manager needs to have a strategic view of the provision of services. Manager should be able to define high-level managerial objectives.
· OntoGov service: A public service configured with the OntoGov platform by using the ontology editor and the OMS. An OntoGov service may be either atomic or composite.
· OntoGov Service configuration: The creation of a new OntoGov service.
· OntoGov Service reconfiguration: The modification of an existing OntoGov service.
· Ontology: An ontology is a formal and explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation of a domain of interest. (after T. Gruber)
Ontology refers to an engineering artefact, constituted by a specific vocabulary used to describe a certain reality, plus a set of explicit assumptions regarding the intended meaning of the vocabulary in some logical language – logical theory Both, vocabulary and assumptions, serve human and software agents to reach a common understanding when communicating.
· Ontology Editor: An ontology editor provides means for creating and modifying ontologies for describing web services.
· Ontology Management System: Ontology management system should be a framework for creating, modifying, querying, and storing ontologies. It allows an application to manipulate and query ontology without worrying about how the ontology is stored and accessed. It should provide an easy-to-use programming interface for interacting with ontologies. Internally, the system uses an inference engine. Indeed, an ontology management system is to an ontology what a database management system (DBMS) is to data.
· Semantic Web Services: Are Web Services with a formal description (semantics) that can enable a better discovery, selection, composition, monitoring, and interoperability.
· Service Configuration System: SCS should be the sets of objects that reads the information stored in the ontologies defined by the OMS in order to achieve the actual implementation and deployment of an OntoGov service in the corresponding PAs. The SCS should cater for the following steps:
- A processor reads the e-government service metamodel and creates, in an automatic or semi-automatic way:
- Software objects derived from the concepts of the domain.
- Business rules derived from the properties that belongs to the concepts.
- Data structure of the service.
- User Interface of the service.
· Web services: Are a new breed of Web application. They are self-contained, self-describing, modular applications that can be published, located, and invoked across the Web. Web services perform functions, which can be anything from simple requests to complicated business processes.
Once a Web service is deployed, other applications (and other Web services) can discover and invoke the deployed service.
Last updated: April 2004